Not panels but slates! Switzerland. Good introduction
They recycle silicon plates from the semi-conductor industry for their solar modules. This high-quality material makes high-output cells and reuses resources that would otherwise go to waste.
BP Solar have manufactured high efficiency monocrystalline solar modules since the mid 1980's. The modules come with a 20 year limited warranty. They're working on a new thin film technology called Apollo Thin Film.
Solarex is (was?) the largest manufacturer of polycrystalline silicon PV modules.
BP purchased Solarex in 1999.
The SX series modules are made with cell strings laminated between sheets of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and tempered low iron glass.
The MSX (Mega SX) series are Made of polycrystalline silicon PV cells coated with patented anti-reflective titanium dioxide.
"The DUNASOLAR Inc. is one of the biggest amorphous silicon photovoltaics panels producer in Europe.
On our WEB page you will find company profile and the description of our products, you will learn
about usage of photovoltaics panels and how they work, plus troubleshooting and helpful things."
(Tell me how!)
Entech use inexpensive Fresnel lenses to capture sunlight, and focus it onto small solar cells.
Eurosolare produces photovoltaic modules in monocrystalline and multicrystalline silicon.
There appears to be some collusion with Uni-solar.
ATS is the largest manufacturer of turn-key automatic manufacturing and testing lines in North America. They own Matrix.
Early in 1997 Matrix Solar Technologies, Inc., acquired Photowatt International.
Photowatt, founded in 1979, is now the largest integrated manufacturer of photovoltaic wafers, cells and modules in Europe, and the world leader in thin silicon cell technology. It holds 5% of the international market.
A bunch of Aussies developing affordable solar photovoltaic systems for the rooftops of the world. Eurosolare have a share in Pacific Solar.
PowerLight Corporation (USA) designer, manufacturer and installer of grid-connected commercial
solar electric systems.
Siemens specialise in monocrystalline photovoltaic panels. They have been manufacturing solar panels since 1970.
There appears to be some collusion with Kyocera. Alternate versions: flat metal roof panels, shingles.
The predecessor of Uni-Solar (a.k.a. United Solar, a.k.a. United Solar Systems Corp.) was Sovonics Solar Systems, established in 1981. Parent company Energy Conversion Devices, Inc
A rule of thumb: PV modules cost US $5 / watt.
75W modules are used for reference, April 2001.
BP275 Qty 4+ $349 each.
AIR THERM Solartechnik AT 75Qty 2+ $330.37
SolarAccess.com, a Solar Energy & Renewable Energy Information Resource.
Sandia National Laboratories Photovoltaics Program
http://www.eren.doe.gov/ (good description of technologies here)
Photon ChipsT differ from today's solar energy technologies - they're photoelectric, instead of photovoltaic. This, apparently, allows the devices to be potentially orders of magnitude cheaper than photovoltaics, and readily mass-produceable. ( It's just that you can't get them !)
Alternative Energy Store US
ETA Engineering US
GO Solar US. (Worth a look)
Solar century UK
Siemens Solar Panels direct from Bullnet
Beco Batteries, Ltd.
9 Speedwell Units
Nelson Rd.,Industrial Estate
Devon TQ6 9SZ
Rutland House, Threvithick Road
Northants NN17 5XY
Dabbrook Power Systems Ltd
Unit 23 Bells Marsh Road
Gorleston Great Yamouth NR31 6PT
Wind and Sun
Humber,Marsh, Stoke Prior
Leominister HR6 ONE
Maui Solar Energy Software Corporation
Solar Design Studio v5.0 (US$159.00)
How much solar energy can you expect at your location.
Photovoltaic systems convert light directly into electricity using semi-conductor
technology. (10% efficiency)
Thermal systems (hot water, pool heaters) produce heat from the sun's radiation. (+40% efficiency)
A cell produces ½ volt. 36 times ½ volt yields 18 volts. However, the voltage is reduced as these
cells get hot in the sun and 12-volt batteries typically need about 14 volts for a charge, so the 36 cell module has become the standard of the solar battery charger industry.
Powergen supplies mains electricity in sunny Milton Keynes at 2.5p per kWh off peak, 6.2p normal (17th January 2002).
(2p per kWh off peak, 5 normal in 2000)
PV seems to come in at 40p.
What about the energy in making the wretched things? According to the article by J. Nijs, et al in their paper "Energy Payback Time of Crystalline Silicon Solar Modules ("Advances in Solar Energy," ed. K. Boer, ASES, Boulder, CO USA; vol. 11, 1997. pp. 291-328), conservative calculations for the pay-back time of crystalline silicon PV modules varies from 2.58 years, for multicrystalline silicon and 2.66 years, for single-crystal silicon in the sunbelt, to 4.92 years and 5.07 years, respectively, for these same materials in less sunny areas. Projections for additional manufacturing improvements indicate improvements to 1.4 years (sunbelt) and 2.67 years (less-sunny areas) in the mid-term future, and 1.22 years and 2.33 years, respectively, for longer-term improvements.
Home Power magazine
French solar magazine
German solar magazine
Useful list of links
PV Power Resource Site
Solar Electric Power Association
List of manufacturers
The Solar Exchange Unit Global Solar Partners brings together teachers and students world-wide to share ideas about energy in a sustainable future.
Useful technical data from U.S. Department of Energy's NREL
Useful database, other renewable energies International Energy Agency CADDET Renewable Energy
Details on cost projections Million Solar Roofs
Main US renewable site from U.S. Department of Energy's EREN
U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaics Program Million Solar Roofs
Australian renewable support Austrian Renewable Energy
Main International Solar Energy Society World-wide Information System for Renewable Energy
Swiss initiatives Förderverein der Energie-Umwelt- und Solar-Initiative
Indian renewable web site yes
Spanish, solar energy training centre Centro de Estudios de la Energía Solar
German initiatives Der Solarserver - Ihr Internetportal zur Sonnenenergie
Canadian renewable web site CEDRL's Photovoltaic Program
Renewable energy news Canadian Association for Renewable Energies
EuroREX, The Renewable Energy Exchange
South African renewables web site Renewable Energy for Rural African Households
Sustainable Community Development link Sustainable Development International
The Solar Roof at CAT
James and James Provider of information for energy and environment professionals worldwide.
Source Guides Renewable Energy Retail Businesses in the United Kingdom
PV inverter. This is work in progress.